Peas - planting, care, varieties
Pea is a favorite plant by everyone and this is understandable. Peas are not only tasty, but also very healthy. Peas are valued mainly for their high protein content. There is almost as much protein in peas as there is in beef. But unlike meat protein, it is much easier to digest. Peas are rich in carbohydrates and trace elements. Green peas contain B vitamins, carotene (provitamin A), vitamins C and PP. The composition of peas includes salts of potassium, manganese, iron and phosphorus. Pea is the source of one of the deficient amino acids - lysine. Peas are present in any health food. It must be present in the diet of cardiovascular patients.
Peas, Latin - Pisum. An annual, self-pollinating herbaceous plant in the legume family, cereal bean crop.
The homeland of peas is considered South-West Asia, where it was cultivated in the Stone Age, in Russia peas have been known since time immemorial.
The root system of the pea is a rod type, well-branched and penetrates deeply into the soil.
Peas, like all legumes, enrich the soil with nitrogen. Useful microorganisms develop on its roots and in the root zone (rhizosphere): nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nodule bacteria, azotobacter, etc. - capable of assimilating atmospheric nitrogen and having a significant effect on the accumulation of nitrogen in the soil necessary for plant nutrition.
The pea stalk is grassy, simple or branching, reaching a length of up to 250 cm. It can be lodged 50-100 cm or stambovy (bush) - in which the stalk is unbranched 15-60 cm high, with short internodes and crowded flowers in the axils of the apical leaves.
The leaves are complex, pinnate. Petioles of leaves end with antennae, clinging to a support and holding the plant vertically.
Flowers, mainly white or purple in various shades, of a moth type, are located 1-2 in the axils of the leaves. In standard forms, peduncles with 3-7 flowers, often collected in inflorescences, are found. Flowering begins 30-55 days after sowing. In early-ripening varieties, the first peduncle appears in the sinus of 6-8 leaves (counting from the root), and in later-ripening varieties - 12-24. Every 1-2 days, the following peduncles appear. Pea is a self-pollinating plant, but partial pollination is possible.
Pea fruit - bean, depending on the variety has a different shape, size and color. Each bean contains 4-10 seeds arranged in a row. The shape and color of the seeds are diverse, their surface is smooth or wrinkled. The color of the peel of the seeds corresponds to the color of the flowers of this plant.
Peas are sown in early spring, and the soil is prepared for him in the fall. The earth is dug up to a depth of 20-30 cm, brought to 1 square. m 4–6 kg of compost or humus, 15–20 g of potassium salt, 20–40 g of superphosphate. In the spring, during loosening, ash is added.
A particularly large crop of peas can be obtained if the soil was well fertilized for the previous crop. Under peas, only rotted manure can be introduced; fresh manure cannot be used - it causes excessive growth of green mass to the detriment of the formation of flowers and fruits.
The best predecessors for peas are early potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, pumpkin. Pea itself, like other legumes, is the best predecessor for all crops. You can return the peas to their old place no earlier than four years later.
Almost any soil is suitable for peas, its mechanical composition is not so important, it can be clay, loamy, and sandy. Acidic soils should be pre-invested (300-400 g of lime per 1 sq. M).
A pea should be allocated a sunny place, avoiding the close occurrence of groundwater, since the roots of the plant penetrate deep into the soil - a meter or more.
Peas are grown in a seedlingless way. Pre-soak the seeds - fill with water at room temperature so that it covers them completely, and incubated for 12-18 hours, changing every 3-4 hours. You can process peas with growth regulators (within 2-3 hours) or warm them up for 5 minutes in hot water by dissolving micronutrients in it. If there are few seeds, they are kept in moist tissue until they begin to germinate. Prepared seeds are sown in moist soil.
Sowing begins very early in late April. As a cold-resistant crop, peas germinate already at 4–7 ° С, seedlings can withstand frosts to -6 ° С, but nevertheless, it is better to close the garden bed with a film during early sowing. Peas are sown in several terms with a shift of 10 days. The last time it is better to do this at the end of May, since a plant can bloom and bear fruit successfully only during the long daylight hours.
Peas are usually sown in rows with a distance between them of 15–20 cm, between plants in a row - 5–6 cm. Furrows are made and peas are laid out in them. The soil is leveled and slightly compacted. Planting depth - 3-4 cm. If the planting is too shallow, the seeds can hatch the birds, so in order to avoid misunderstandings it is better to cover the crops with non-woven material. After a week and a half, shoots appear.
If you can make wide (40–45 cm) aisles on the beds where peas are planted, then you can sow salad or radish in them. Peas are also grown in tree-trunk circles, if there is enough light. To do this, add fertile soil to a height of 10-12 cm.
Peas are a moisture-loving culture. With a lack of moisture, flowers and ovaries fall off. Before flowering, the plant is watered once a week, and during flowering, when the soil should not dry out at all, - twice. Do not forget to loosen the aisles, especially if a crust has formed on the soil after heavy watering or heavy rains.
In order for the peas to bring a big crop, you need to provide the plant with a solid support. This is especially true for tall varieties. It is most convenient to make a support in the form of a wire mesh fixed on stakes 2 m high. Vegetable peas, of course, are not as decorative as a rank and sweet peas, but it is also able to decorate a gazebo, balcony or terrace and create green wings and trellises.
If the spring was cold, then nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the soil. Legumes enrich the soil with nitrogen - nodules develop in their roots, in which nitrogen-fixing bacteria live. But nodules form when the soil is already warm enough. So a little help peas still have to. For this, a mullein solution is used: 1 kg per 10 liters of water with the addition of 1 tbsp. l nitrofoski.
About a month after mass flowering, you can harvest. Peas refers to the so-called multi-crop crops. The fruiting period lasts 35–40 days. Pea blades are harvested in a day or two. The bottom beans ripen first. During the season (under suitable conditions and appropriate care), you can collect up to 4 kg per 1 sq. Km. m
When the crop is harvested, the tops are cut off and laid in a compost pile, and the roots are scented or simply chopped up the remaining green mass and buried in the ground. Such a green fertilizer can replace manure and compost, it increases the fertility of the soil and improves its structure.
Varieties of peas and their characteristics
There are two main groups of peas: peeling and sugar.
Shelling varieties differ from sugar varieties in the presence of a parchment layer on the inside of the bean leaflets, which makes them inedible. Such peas are grown to produce green peas, which are used for canning.
Sugar Varieties do not have partitions (parchment layer) and are grown for unripe beans (shoulder blades). Unripe, tender beans are consumed whole without husking seeds. There is also a semi-sugar type of vegetable peas, where the parchment layer is weakly expressed and is noticeable only in dried beans.
Within each of these groups, there are varieties with rounded smooth grains and wrinkled grains (brain varieties). The best seeds are brain. They are angular-square in shape, with a wrinkled surface and give sweet, high-quality peas.
Characteristics of Some Pea Varieties
Avola 9908469. Pea variety is included in the State Register for the North Caucasus region. Shelling. Pea variety is recommended for fresh use, freezing and canning. Early ripening (56-57 days). Pea bean ripening friendly. The stem is simple. Green leaf type. Pea flower is medium sized, white. Beans of medium length with 6-9 seeds, green in technical ripeness. The height of attachment of the lower pea beans is 33-43 cm. The yield of green peas from the beans is 45-51%. The taste of fresh and canned peas is good.
Adagum - mid-season pea variety of canned food and peeling beans with high flavoring qualities. The pea plant is semi-dwarf, the stem length is 70-80 cm. Pea beans are 6-8 cm long, aligned in color and size. Ripe pea seeds are cerebral, yellow-green, overripe - yellow.
Alexandra - Sugar pea variety for fresh consumption and after cooking. Pea beans do not have a parchment layer and veins.
Altai Emerald - early ripening (53-55 days) cultivar of peeling peas. Plants 35-45 cm high. Compact pea bush. Pea bean is slightly curved. Green peas are high in protein and sugar.
Ambrosia - variety of sugar peas. Early ripening, the period from seedlings to the technical ripeness of pea beans is 54-56 days. The height of the stems is 60-70 cm., Requires support or trellis. For food, young shoulder blades with embryo seeds are used. The seeds of a pea variety are sown early in the spring to a depth of 5-6 cm according to the 15x15 cm pattern.
Vega- peeling, medium-tall, mid-early variety of peas. Pods are straight or slightly curved, spiky, 7-9 cm long, contain 6-9 peas. Pea seeds are round, angular, cerebral. Pea variety is used for fresh consumption and canning.
Vera - An early variety of peas. The pea variety is peeling for fresh use and processing. The growing season is 48-63 days. Pea stalk 55-65 cm high, white flowers, pod straight or slightly curved, 6-8 seeds, 6-9 cm long, with a strong parchment layer. The pea seeds are wrinkled, yellow-green. The mass of 1000 seeds of peas 180-200 g. The dry matter content of 21.8%, sugar 3.6, starch 6.7%. The pea variety is susceptible to ascochitosis, the moth is slightly damaged. The value of pea varieties is stable productivity, ripening, lodging resistance, suitability for mechanical cleaning.
Viola - mid-season canned peas with peeling beans. Ripens in 57-62 days. The taste of peas is good in fresh and canned form. The plant is semi-dwarf, the length of the stem is 60-80 cm. Pods of peas with a highly developed parchment layer, straight, obtuse. Peas are aligned in size, mature seeds are cerebral, bluish-green in color. The pea pod is straight blunt-pointed 6-8 cm long, in the pod 6-9 grains.
Sunrise - medium-late variety of peas for canning purposes and with peeling beans. The pea plant is semi-dwarf, the stem length is 65-75 cm. The pea pods with a highly developed parchment layer, slightly curved, with a pointed apex. Ripe pea seeds are cerebral, bluish-green in color.
Giant- variety of sugar peas. High sugar pods! A pea plant 90-96 cm high. It begins to bloom at 16 knots, 1-2 pods appear from one knot. Pea pods up to 2.8 cm wide and 13 cm long. Unusually large pea pods, dark green, soft, tend to take the shape of a cup when ripe. Pea seeds are large, dark green and wrinkled, usually 8 seeds in a pod.
Horn The pea stalk is simple, 60-70 cm long, slightly branching. Prior to the first inflorescence, 18-22 knots. The pea pod is straight, spiky, medium-sized, green, 7–9 cm long. Green peas aligned in size, medium-sized, contain 21.5–22.1% solids, 5.5–6% sugars, 3% starch. Weight 1000 sem. peas 170-176 g. The output of green peas 48-49%. The pea variety is resistant to root rot and downy mildew. Designed for canning. Zoned in Moldova, Russia.
Emerald - mid-season variety of peeling peas. The stem is simple, 68-85 cm long. Until the first inflorescence, 11-13 knots, and a total of 18-22. Pea flowers are white, 1-2 on the peduncle. The pea pod is slightly curved, spiky, large, on the plant 5-9 pods, in the pod 10-12 seeds. Green peas are dark green, contain 20.9-22.5% solids, 6.25% sugars, 2.48 starch. Pea seeds are cerebral, small, light green. peas 180-200, the yield of green peas 49.5-51.9%. The pea variety is resistant to root rot and downy mildew. Designed for fresh consumption and canning. Zoned in Moldova.
Zhegalova 112 - mid-season pea variety, sugar, ripening together, eaten in the phase of milk ripeness. The pea stalk is simple, long (120-180 cm.), It needs support. Pea pods are straight or slightly curved, with a blunt tip, 10-15 cm long, with 5-7 grains. The productivity of the pea variety is high. The period of collecting pea pods lasts 15-20 days. The pea pods are thickened, the beans are fleshy, tasty and nutritious. The pea variety was bred at the Gribovsky vegetable selection station 70 years ago.
Superb 240 - peeling, mid-season, mid-sized pea variety. Pea beans are curved with a pointed tip, 8-9 cm long., Contain 6-9 seeds. Pea seeds are cerebral, angularly square, squeezed perpendicular to the scar, yellowish-green. Pea variety is suitable for fresh use and canning.
Premium - an early ripening variety of peeling peas. The period from germination to harvesting is 55-60 days. The height of the pea plant is up to 80 cm. The pea pod is medium-curved, with a blunt tip, 8 cm long, dark green. On a plant up to 14 pods. There are up to 9 green grains in a pea pod. The taste of peas in fresh and processed form is excellent. Use fresh, for freezing and canning.
Early 301 - an early ripe variety of peas for canning and peeling beans with high taste. Ripens in 50-55 days. The stalk of a pea plant is short, 35–40 cm long. The pea pods are 8–10 cm long, straight or slightly curved with a pointed apex. Ripe pea seeds are cerebral, yellow-green.
Early mushroom 11- early pea variety (51-64 days). The plant is 40-70 cm high. The pea pod is large, dark green, 7-10 cm long, straight with 6-10 grains. Green peas are large, tender and sweet, high in vitamin C and protein. Pea variety is suitable for all types of processing. Pea seeds are cerebral, bluish-green.
Sugar-2 - mid-season pea variety. The stalk of a pea plant is simple medium-sized (70-80 cm.). Sugar pea pod without parchment layer, 7-9 cm long, in the pod 7-9 seeds. Pea green brain seeds. The pea variety is appreciated for the excellent quality of the beans, their good graveliness, and resistance to lodging.
Soyuz-10 - mid-ripening, ripening variety of peeling peas. The stalk of a pea plant is simple, 60-80 cm long. Until the first inflorescence, 12-16 knots. The pea pod is straight, narrow, blunt-pointed, green, 6-8 cm long. There are 6-7 pods on a plant, 4-10 seeds in a pod. Green peas are dark green, lined, medium in size. contains 21.6% solids, 6.8% sugars, 3.5% starch. Pea seeds are semi-cerebral, angular-square, wrinkled, yellow-gray-green. peas 180-220 g. The output of green peas 46-50%. Pea variety is medium resistant to root rot. Zoned in Moldova.
Sphere - An early variety of peeling peas. The stalk of a pea plant is simple, 65-75 cm long. Until the first inflorescence, 7-9 knots, and only 11-15. The pea pod is straight, large, with a sharp slightly curved apex, dark green, 6-10 cm long, 1.3-1.6 cm wide. Green peas aligned in color and size, with good technological qualities, contain 17.7 % solids, 5% sugars, 2.1-2.7 starch. The duration of the technical ripeness of the pea variety is 5-6 days. Pea seeds are semi-cerebral, round, medium, yellow-green. peas 210-220 g.Zoned in Moldova.
Tiras - medium early variety of peeling peas. The stem of a pea plant is simple, slightly branching, 65-80 cm long. Until the first inflorescence, 8-10 knots, and only 11-15. The pea flowers are white, each with a peduncle 2. The pea pod is curved, large, spiky, dark green, 6-10 cm long, each plant has 6-12 pods, and there are 8-10 seeds in the pod. Green peas are dark green, medium in size, contain 19.5-20.5% solids, 5.8-6.5% sugars, 1.7-2.3 starch, 2.7% protein. Pea seeds are angular-square, medium, light yellow. peas 220-230 g. Peas are intended for fresh consumption, freezing and canning.
Troika - late ripening peas, ripened after 80-90 days. The pea variety is medium-sized - 70-80 cm. The pea pod is 6-8 cm long with a sharp tip. Pods are located 2-3 in the fruiting plant in the upper part of the stem, in the pod of 6-8 pea seeds. Seeds are brain, small, green. Pea variety is good for canning and fresh.
Hawa pearls - pea cultivar for fresh use and processing. The growing season of pea varieties is 54-70 days. Bean maturation is friendly. The stem of a pea plant is 78-97 cm high, dark green with a waxy coating. The pea pod is slightly curved, 7-8 cm long, 5-9 seed. The number of pods on a pea plant is 8-16. The height of the attachment of the lower pod is 22-38 cm. The pea seeds are wrinkled yellow-green. The mass of 1000 seeds of peas is 200-218 g. Peas are dark green, even in size, the yield is 39-52%. The taste is great. The dry matter content of 21.5%, sugar 3.2%, protein 6, starch 5.6%. The value of pea varieties is high productivity and quality of peas.
South-47 - An early variety of peeling peas. The stalk of a pea plant is simple, 70-85 cm long. The pea pod is straight with a blunt tip, dark green. There are 7-8 pods on a plant, and 7-9 pea seeds in a pod. Pods are located at a height of 40-43 cm. Compact, ripen at the same time. Green peas in the technical ripeness phase are green, large, leveled, containing 20.1% solids, 5.9% sugars, 2.1 starch. Pea seeds are semi-cerebral, round, medium, light green. peas 235-248 g. Harvest of pods - 12.8-14, seeds 2-2.5 t / ha. Peas are intended for fresh consumption, freezing and canning. Zoned in the Russian Federation.
Era - medium-late variety of peeling peas. The stem of a pea plant is simple, slightly branching. Until the first inflorescence 16-19 knots. The pea pod is slightly curved, with a sharp tip, bright green, 7–9 cm long, 5–8 pods on a plant, and 7–10 pea seeds in a pod. Green peas contain 20.2-21.8% solids, 6-7.5% sugars, 2.5-2.7 starch. Pea seeds are medium-sized, bluish-green, shaped like a drum. peas 175-185 g. Pea variety is medium resistant to downy mildew. Peas are intended for fresh consumption and conservation. Zoned in Moldova, Russia.
Diseases and pests of peas
One of the worst enemies of peas is the pea moth or leaf moth. Caterpillars of this pest winter in the soil. The flight of butterflies from the cocoon just coincides with the flowering of peas. Each butterfly can lay more than 200 testicles on leaves, flowers, pods and stalks of peas. After about 6-10 days, depending on weather conditions, caterpillars emerge from the testicles that fall inside the pods and live there, eating young peas. Therefore, wormholes appear in the grains, and often, peas can be completely destroyed.
Somewhere in 16-20 days, leaving behind traces held together by cobwebs, leaf-leaf caterpillars leave the pods through the gnawed holes and go down to the ground. By the time of pea harvesting, most of the caterpillars burrow into the soil to a depth of 2-2.5 cm. And the gardener remains hopelessly spoiled by the crop. It should be noted that the early varieties of peas are less damaged by the moth. Plants of early sowing time also suffer less from this pest.
You can fight with a pea moth by periodically spraying plants with decoctions of wormwood, tomato tops, infusions of burdock roots, celandine leaves, tobacco and garlic. An infusion of garlic, for example, is prepared as follows: 20 grams of garlic is passed through a meat grinder and poured with 10 liters of water. Insist a day, then filter and spray with this solution of the plant. It is advisable to spray later in the evening. It is better not to wait for the pea moth to ramp up on the plants, but to carry out preventative treatments in advance. Also, the infusion of garlic can help with pea aphids.
Dusting plants with ash, tobacco, dry celandine powder can help in the fight against codling moth.
Very effective remedies for codling moth are such as winter digging of the plot, early sowing of peas. Some experts advise warming the seeds before sowing as a preventive measure.
A very common disease of peas is powdery mildew. You can fight it with the help of this infusion of field sow thistle - 300 grams of leaves are insisted in a bucket of water for 8 hours. Spraying should be done twice, with an interval of about a week.
Waiting for your advice!